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帖子  Admin 于 周五 十二月 07, 2012 6:59 pm

Fourth Battle of the Isonzo


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Fourth Battle of the Isonzo



Part of the Italian Front
(World War I)




Eleven Battles of the Isonzo
June 1915 — September 1917






Date

November 10—December 2, 1915



Location

Soča river, western Slovenia



Result

Italian victory




Belligerents



Italy

Austria-Hungary



Commanders and leaders



Luigi Cadorna,
Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Aosta

Conrad von Hötzendorf,
Svetozar Boroević, Archduke Eugen of Austria



Strength



370 battalions
1,374 guns

155 battalions
626 guns



Casualties and losses



49,500(7,500 dead)

32,100(4,000 dead)







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Italian Front







1st Isonzo ·
2nd Isonzo ·
3rd Isonzo ·
4th Isonzo ·
5th Isonzo ·
Asiago ·
6th Isonzo (Doberdò} ·
7th Isonzo ·
8th Isonzo ·
9th Isonzo ·
10th Isonzo ·
Ortigara ·
11th Isonzo ·
Caporetto ·
Piave River ·
Vittorio Veneto



The Fourth Battle of the Isonzo was fought between the armies of Kingdom of Italy and those of Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front in World War I, between November 10 and December 2, 1915.

[edit] Overview

Differently from the other three Battles of the Isonzo (June, July and October), this offensive lasted a short amount of time, and is sometimes considered a continuation of the previous offensive.

Most of the clash concentrated in the direction of Gorizia and on the Kras Plateau, though the push was distributed on the whole Isonzo front. The 2nd Italian Army, aiming to Gorizia, was able to capture the hilly area around Oslavia and San Floriano del Collio overlooking the Soča (Isonzo) and the town of Gorizia. The Third Army, covering the rest of the front up to the sea, launched a series of large and bloody attacks which brought no significative gain.

Mount Sei Busi, already the scene of bitter fighting, was attacked five times by the Italian forces, always in vain.

The intensity of the fighting increased until the end of November, when the bridgehead of Tolmin (Italian: Tolmino) was heavily bombed by both sides and the casualty ratio per day reached its apex. In the first fifteen days of December, however, the fighting was reduced to small scale skirmishes as opposed to the massive frontal assaults that characterized the previous phases of the battle.

An unsigned truce arrived together with the first great cold in the mountains of the Kras, and operations were arrested due to lack of supplying.

The Austro-Hungarian High Command, worried by the huge losses, notwithstanding the 12 additional divisions sent to the front, for the first time requested help from the German Empire, which was not formally in the war against Italy yet. This reason led the Germans to intervene on the Italian front but only starting from the Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo.

[edit] See also
Battles of the Isonzo
Scipio Slataper

[edit] External links
FirstWorldWar.Com: The Battles of the Isonzo, 1915-17
Battlefield Maps: Italian Front
11 battles at the Isonzo
The Walks of Peace in the Soča Region Foundation. The Foundation preserves, restores and presents the historical and cultural heritage of the First World War in the area of the Isonzo Front for the study, tourist and educational purposes.
The Kobarid Museum (in English)
Društvo Soška Fronta (in Slovenian)
Pro Hereditate - extensive site (in En/It/Sl)
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